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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Citing Literature. Volume 19 , Issue 2 December Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country until today. Records from Magellan's voyage show that Brunei possessed more cannon than European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them. Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po , to Malacca, with a retinue of , to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.
Han Li Po's well constructed is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina , where her retinue settled. The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca , which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa , who in wrote "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice ".
Western influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later. By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand. European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east.
Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago. Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links.
For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued. For most, a life with subsistence level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilizations, hunting and gathering was still hard. Europeans brought Christianity allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread. Thailand also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe and Russia.
Gujarat , India had a flourishing trade relationship with Southeast Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. Spanish ruled Peru in South America and Mexico in North America formed a trade-triangle with the Philippines and the Columbian exchange reached Asia through these routes. The Mexican Silver Dollar became the first world currency since the largest silver deposit in the world in Potosi, Bolivia simultaneously gave Spain the financial fuel to exercise power in the Mediterranean and the Philippines the money necessary to Christianize a then Pagan or Muslim archipelago.
Mexican Silver pesos also gave great wealth to traders in Manila which was an exchange center between the Americas and Asia due to the fact that China then was poor in silver yet taxes were officially paid in silver, Indian too was addicted to gold and had imported gold from Southeast Asia since antiquity. The Arabs and Malays were also very covetous for material wealth. However; the Chinese, Arab, Indian and Malay merchants present in Manila were inherently exploitative since they exchanged Latin-American silver which was procured by the loss of hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable lives of many Incans slaving under the Mit'a in the Silver Mountain of Potosi, Bolivia for their Silks, Aromatics, Pearls and Spices which were commercial products that can be grown and manufactured whereas the silver mined in the Americas were finite resources that was eventually exhausted.
The Filipinos having bled together with these Latin Americans in wars across the archipelago to maintain Christianity, sided with the Latinos in sometimes massacring Chinese, Arab, Malay and Indian migrants to the Philippines who regularly plot and rebel against Christian rule yet simultaneously covet Mexican Silver and Filipino Gold. However, exemptions were given to faithful Chinese, loyal Indians, loving Malays and self-sacrificing Arabs who were given precious Mexican silver or Filipino gold since some of them abandoned their materialism and addiction to wealth and glory for the virtues of the soul.
Americans from the United States had invaded the Philippines after Spain left and they traded with Southeast Asia too via their Philippine colony. Most countries in the region enjoy national autonomy. Democratic forms of government and the recognition of human rights are taking root. ASEAN provides a framework for the integration of commerce, and regional responses to international concerns. China has asserted broad claims over the South China Sea , based on its Nine-Dash Line , and has built artificial islands in an attempt to bolster its claims.
China also has asserted an exclusive economic zone based on the Spratly Islands. China , the Court ruled in favor of the Philippines and rejected China's claims. Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia and it also the largest archipelago in the world by size according to the CIA World Factbook.
Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Puncak Jaya in Papua , Indonesia at 5, metres 16, feet , on the island of New Guinea ; it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Southeast Asia is Hkakabo Razi at 5, meters and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak, Mount Everest.
Mayon Volcano , despite being dangerously active , holds the record of the world's most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption.
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Southeast Asia is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent , a boundary which runs through Indonesia. The climate in Southeast Asia is mainly tropical—hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall. Northern Vietnam and the Myanmar Himalayas are the only regions in Southeast Asia that feature a subtropical climate , which has a cold winter with snow. The majority of Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shift in winds or monsoon.
The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rain forest is the second largest on earth with the Amazon being the largest. An exception to this type of climate and vegetation is the mountain areas in the northern region, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures and drier landscape.
Other parts fall out of this climate because they are desert like. Southeast Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in the world. The vast majority of Southeast Asia falls within the warm, humid tropics, and its climate generally can be characterised as monsoonal. The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse; on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra , the orangutan , the Asian elephant , the Malayan tapir , the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Bornean clouded leopard can also be found.
Six subspecies of the binturong or bearcat exist in the region, though the one endemic to the island of Palawan is now classed as vulnerable. Tigers of three different subspecies are found on the island of Sumatra the Sumatran tiger , in peninsular Malaysia the Malayan tiger , and in Indochina the Indochinese tiger ; all of which are endangered species. The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard and inhabits the islands of Komodo , Rinca , Flores , and Gili Motang in Indonesia. The Philippine eagle is the national bird of the Philippines.
It is considered by scientists as the largest eagle in the world,  and is endemic to the Philippines' forests. The wild Asian water buffalo , and on various islands related dwarf species of Bubalus such as anoa were once widespread in Southeast Asia; nowadays the domestic Asian water buffalo is common across the region, but its remaining relatives are rare and endangered. The mouse deer , a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, mostly can be found on Sumatra, Borneo Indonesia and in Palawan Islands Philippines.
The gaur , a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina. There is very little scientific information available regarding Southeast Asian amphibians. Birds such as the peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia. The babirusa , a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia as well. The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China as well.
The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian Western species from Australasian Eastern species. As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia, concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region's environment.
A significant portion of Southeast Asia, however, has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife. The nations of the region, with only few exceptions, have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna. Indonesia, for example, has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose.
Even so, such species as the Javan rhinoceros face extinction, with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java. The shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish and molluscs abound. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat Indonesia is the highest recorded on Earth.
Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world's coral reef biodiversity, the Verde Passage is dubbed by Conservation International as the world's "center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity".
The whale shark , the world's largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean territories of the Philippines.
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The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo.co.organiccrap.com/106419.php
Tourism in South and Southeast Asia - C. Michael Hall, Stephen Page - Google книги
While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. The two worst regional hazes were in and in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze, mostly caused by " slash and burn " activities in Sumatra and Borneo. Muar experienced the highest API level of on 23 June at around 7 am. Even prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system.
A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were spices such as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First Spaniards Manila galleon who sailed from the Americas and Portuguese , then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities.
An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities. For example, the rubber plantations of Malaysia, Java, Vietnam and Cambodia, the tin mining of Malaya, the rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and Irrawaddy River delta in Burma, were a response to powerful market demands. The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region. The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century, when Chinese migrants from southern China settled in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries.
The region's economy greatly depends on agriculture; rice and rubber have long been prominent exports. Manufacturing and services are becoming more important. An emerging market , Indonesia is the largest economy in this region. Newly industrialised countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, while Singapore and Brunei are affluent developed economies.
The rest of Southeast Asia is still heavily dependent on agriculture, but Vietnam is notably making steady progress in developing its industrial sectors. The region notably manufactures textiles, electronic high-tech goods such as microprocessors and heavy industrial products such as automobiles.
Oil reserves in Southeast Asia are plentiful. Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the US  This is to avoid disruption of the kind recently caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the US in the Hengchun earthquakes. Tourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries, especially Cambodia. According to UNESCO, "tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet.
Indonesia is the only member of G major economies and is the largest economy in the region. Indonesia is the most populous country with million people, and also the 4th most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. The Aslians and Negritos were believed as one of the earliest inhabitant in the region. In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than million people, mostly concentrated in Java , Indonesia.
The second largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia is Vietnamese Kinh people with around 86 million population, mainly inhabiting in Vietnam, thus forming a significant minority in neighboring Cambodia and Laos. The Thais is also a significant ethnic group with around 59 million population forming the majority in Thailand. In Burma, the Burmese account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock in this country. Indonesia is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, with hundreds of ethnic minorities inhabited the archipelago, including Madurese , Minangkabau , Bugis , Balinese , Dayak , Batak and Malays.
While Malaysia is split between more than half Malays and one-quarter Chinese, and also Indian minority in the West Malaysia however Dayaks is the most majority in Sarawak and Kadazan-dusun is the most majority in Sabah which are in the East Malaysia. In city-state Singapore, Chinese are the majority, yet the city is a multicultural melting pot with Malays, Indians and Eurasian also called the island their home.
While the Khmers are the majority in Cambodia, and forming a significant minority in Southern Vietnam and Thailand. The Hmong people are the minority in Vietnam, China and Laos. The Philippines is also unique in Southeast Asia, in holding the only Latino founded communities in Southeast Asia due to its former political union with Mexico during the era of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and also possessing a Mexican-Spanish based Creole language called Chavacano. There is also burgeoning American expat population in the Philippines.
Countries in Southeast Asia practice many different religions. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority country around the world. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. East Timor is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Portuguese rule. No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous.
Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world. Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea and Timor. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation.
In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia, Highland Philippines and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Burma, Sakka Indra is revered as a nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with strong emphasis on ancestor worship. Each of the languages have been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade, immigration, and historical colonization as well. There are nearly over native languages in the region.
The language composition for each country is as follows with official languages in bold :. Indonesia has over languages in over 17, islands across the archipelago, making Indonesia the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet,  slightly behind Papua New Guinea. The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia , widely used in educational, political, economic, and other formal situations.
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In daily activities and informal situations, most Indonesians speak in their local language s. For more details, see: Languages of Indonesia.
Tourism in South and Southeast Asia
The Philippines has more than a hundred native languages, most without official recognition from the national government. Spanish and Arabic are on a voluntary and optional basis. Malaysian , Indonesian , Mandarin , Lan-nang Hokkien , Cantonese , Hakka , Japanese and Korean are also spoken in the Philippines due to immigration, geographic proximity and historical ties. See: Languages of the Philippines. Raffles Place , Singapore. Also Brunei shows a strong influence from Arabia. Vietnam and Singapore show more Chinese influence  in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam was in China's sphere of influence for much of its history.
Indian influence in Singapore is only evident through the Tamil migrants,  which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam's history, it has had no direct influence from India — only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples. Moreover, Vietnam is also categorized under the East Asian cultural sphere along with China, Korea, and Japan due to the large amount of Chinese influence embedded in their culture and lifestyle. Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for thousands of years, ranging across the subregion.
Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This include weaponry, such as the distinctive kris , and musical instruments, such as the gamelan. The region's chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam , India , and China.
Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of the Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era.
As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks ; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary. The arts of Southeast Asia have affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance's emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience.
Most of Southeast Asia introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early 7th century before the Khmer Empire , which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism. Apsara Dance , famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance. Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being Wayang from Indonesia.
The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia is quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago.
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Indonesia, despite conversion to Islam which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art and literature. It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine.
The Tai , coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware. Traditional music in Southeast Asia is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions. Main styles of traditional music can be seen: Court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region.
Of the court and folk genres, gong-chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam. String instruments also are popular in the region. On November 18, , UNESCO officially recognized angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity , and encourage Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.
The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region. Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called lontar see image to the left — magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side.
The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas , until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.
The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised e. The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam and more recently, Singapore and Malaysia. The adoption of Chinese characters in Vietnam dates back to around B. However, the use of the Chinese script has been in decline, especially in Singapore and Malaysia as the younger generations are in favour of the Latin Script. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subregion of Asia.
Official languages. Mon Nicobarese Aslian. Tamil Telugu Malayalam Kannada. Thai Lao Shan. Capital cities. Largest cities. North Asia. Central Asia. Western Asia. South Asia. East Asia. Southeast Asia. Andaman Sea. Arafura Sea. Bali Sea. Banda Sea. Ceram Sea. Flores Sea. Java Sea. Molucca Sea. Savu Sea. South China Sea. Timor Sea. Bohol Sea. Camotes Sea. Philippine Sea Pacific Ocean. Samar Sea. Sibuyan Sea. Sulu Sea. Visayan Sea. Celebes Sea. Bismarck Sea. Coral Sea. East China Sea. Solomon Sea. Gulf of Thailand. Gulf of Tonkin. Bay of Bengal. Indian Ocean. Strait of Malacca.
Makassar Strait. Gulf of Carpentaria. Karimata Strait. Luzon Strait. Taiwan Strait. Gulf of Tomini. Sunda Strait. Moro Gulf. Main article: History of Southeast Asia. See also: European colonisation of Southeast Asia. See also: Japanese foreign policy on Southeast Asia.