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Only when Dr. Cazenove arrives is the final diagnosis given: Pauline is suffering from an angina whose severity prevents her from breathing. Ambroise Tardieu and published in Then, although Pauline recovers from her terrible disease, she loses most of her ambition, love, and appreciation as the novel unfolds. As much as Zola introduces in his novels the medical knowledge of his time, he also uses those diseases for narrative purposes. Aristide Saccard accepts the deal. I, Many other women die from pulmonary diseases in Les Rougon-Macquart. III, ; and there are many other similar cases.

V, ch. These series of female patients, all of the same family — of the Rougon-Macquart family or other — are very important for Zola: they become an additional argument in the elaboration of his doctrine of heredity. Fascinatingly, far fewer men than women contract these diseases or die from them in the Rougon-Macquart cycle. The same is true of M. Verlaque, a sick and coughing character in Le Ventre de Paris He even dies of it, but none of the aforementioned diseases are indicated.

Finally, only a few minor cases of male phthisis appear, and these are never developed as fully as the feminine ones. According to historian David Barnes , more women than men indeed suffered from those diseases cf. Moreover, as women suffering from those diseases are often family members, Zola applies his idea of bad heredity through these illnesses.

Additionally, the medical knowledge situation should be considered: only in did Dr. Robert Koch discover the bacillus causing tuberculosis and this new medical knowledge spread quite slowly. Thus, the causes of respiratory and pulmonary diseases remained unclear for a long time, a fact that explains why Zola could interpret those illnesses as genetic as well as feminine. When Zola wrote Les Rougon-Macquart , Louis Pasteur had conclusively proved the existence of the contamination process, after millennia of incomprehension Paillard In certain cases, Zola adopts this new medical knowledge.

At the end of the novel, she dies of infectious smallpox. Zola scrupulously explains that she contracted the disease through her son Louis, according to the medical diagnosis, and thus adheres to the principles of Naturalism. Her death coincides with, and symbolizes, the end of the corrupt imperial regime. Hysteria often expresses itself through violent, unexpected and spectacular crisis, due to emotional excess. These crises were seen as part of an irrational and incontrollable femininity. She is also portrayed as possessing an active sexual disposition, a fact known to many:. But contrary to her grandmother, Marthe seems sexually frustrated.

Other female characters who are not members of the Rougon-Macquart family also suffer from hysteria. She cannot resist the temptation to steal clothing accessories, especially lace, for no apparent reason, thereby exemplifying nineteenth-century female kleptomania due to hysteria cf.

Marzel According to historian Philippe Perrot , 65 ,. She already suffered from her first attacks of this ailment at the age of fourteen. After her marriage, she becomes whimsical, changes her mood twenty times a day, and the crises multiply. From then on, she also cheats regularly on her husband. These literary cases show that for Zola hysteria is in part a form of psychosexual pathology, associated either with sexual frustration or with uncontrolled sexuality.

It is important to note that the number of women diagnosed with hysteria is relatively low in the Rougon-Macquart series: among the total number of female diseases, cases of hysteria represent a tiny minority. Needless to say, no male character is described as hysterical despite the fact that some suffer from similar mental disorders. At the end of the novel, Claude, a talented artist, hangs himself in front of one of his paintings.

Again, as in the case of infectious diseases, men get away with the symptoms, while women get the medical diagnosis. Many female characters suffer, and sometimes even die, from unspecified diseases. No male character dies from such mysterious disease in Les Rougon-Macquart.

An example of this is Mme Campardon, a minor character in the novel Pot-Bouille She suffers from a mysterious sexual disease which condemns her to absolute inactivity, forces her to lie down in bed most of the time, and in particular prevents her from having sex. This predicament pushes her husband into the arms of another woman, his cousin Gasparine.

In this manner, M. Indeed, M. Bourras, and this purpose matters more than the causal motivation put forward by the program of Naturalism. However, just after their marriage ceremony, she dies inexplicably as she kisses her husband for the first time, on the steps of the cathedral. In this case, neither her illness nor her death are motivated by medical conditions. Other scholars consider this novel as a type of fairytale cf.

From our point of view, it is important to note that Zola is willing to suspend the logic of Naturalism and to overlook any medical explanation of the disease and the death of an important female character. Rainy Day Relaxation Road Trip. Romantic Evening Sex All Themes. Features Interviews Lists. Streams Videos All Posts. Stream or buy on:. Albert Roussel Edition. Record Label. Bach: Sonatas. Beethoven: Triple Concerto; Choral Fantasy. James Bowman.

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