A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. Il lance la balle. In the above sentence la balle is the direct object. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject or nominative pronouns "I, you, he Similary, direct objects, such as "la balle", can be replaced by pronouns.
These are a different set of pronouns accusative. As in English, you would say "She gave him," and not "Her gave he. Il la lance. Il les lance. Le, la, and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. To conjugate, drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. Elision and Liaison In all conjugations, je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel or silent h. Example: J'attends, J'habite If a phrase is negative, ne changes to n'.
In all plural forms, the s at the end of each subject pronoun, normally unpronounced, becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel. It is a type of pronominal verb a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it called a reflexive verb, which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject.
Literally translated, the verb means To amuse oneself. J'aime parler. When negating a sentence, remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Je n'aime pas parler. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs.
Michel : J'attends mon amie. Pierre : Je vais au parc. Christophe : Je viens du stade. You will learn their conjugation in a later lesson. Thus, mon amie is used instead of ma amie, while ma bonne amie would be okay. G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition, a direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. Il lui jette la balle. Il leur jette la balle. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing.
When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns. Il la lui jette. Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. Also note that unlike le and la, which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened.
V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments. As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. Il habite Rue de Rennes. Partir is used in other phrases. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -re verb.
Expressions with Faire faire attention - to pay attention faire connaissance - to get acquainted faire la morale - to scold faire la queue - to wait in line s'en faire - to worry. Meanings me - me, to me te - you, to you singular, informal nous - us, to us vous - you, to you plural, formal.
Place in sentences These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify Je te vois. Je veux te voir. If a perfect tense is used, these pronouns go before the auxiliary verb. Je t'ai vu.
Direct Object Replacement Il me voit. Il te voit. Il nous voit. Indirect Object Replacement Il me l'appelle. Il te le jette. Il nous le jette. Il vous le jette. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedroom using the vocabulary. Don't forget prepositions. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Nous avons  aussi un bureau avec trois ordinateurs : un par personne! La cuisine est toute petite et   nous y mangeons le soir.
Il y a une petite table et quatre chaises. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. The ne is placed before the verb, while the pas is placed after. Formation and Rules Simple negation is done by wrapping ne Je ne vole pas. In a perfect tense, ne When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne Je ne veux pas voler. Je veux ne pas voler. Je ne le vole pas. He is [a] lawyer. Il n'est pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer. Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. We are not doing our homework.
Je joue du piano. I play the piano. Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano. Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car. Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. You do not sell your car. J'ai un livre. Je n'ai pas de livre. J'ai des livres. Je n'ai pas de livres. Examples Il est belge.. He is Belgian. Il n'est pas belge. He is not Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. We read a book. Nous ne lisons pas de livre. We do not read a book. G: Contractions Contractions have been discussed previously in the form of elision. They are a combination of two or more consecutive words that have been integrated into the language, for example, aujourd'hui.
The definite pronoun la remains in full form. Cloudy Weather le nuage cloud Il y a des nuages. It's cloudy. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. It's warm. Il fait froid. It's cold. The sky is clear. Il fait du vent. It's windy. The sky is clearing up. Le vent souffle. The wind blows. Le soleil brille. The sun is shining. It's snowing.
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It's hailing. Il pleut. It's raining. It rained. It's going to rain. G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -er verb. Usage There is no present progressive tense in French, so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going. Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone.
Je vais au stade. Instead of a preposition and place, you can use the pronoun y, meaning there. Y comes before the verb. Remember that aller must be used with a place there or a name when indicating that you are going somewhere, even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English. J'y vais. Tu y vas. Nous y allons. The negative form of aller with the y pronoun has both the verb and pronoun enclosed between ne and pas. Il n'y va pas. Il va pleuvoir demain. Il va faire froid.
Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. Idioms Allons-y - ahlonzee - Let's go! On y va! On y va? Liaison Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after This process is called liaison. However, since allons and allez begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay.
In order to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go consecutively. To conjugate, drop the -ir to find the "stem" or "root". Usage As you can probably tell from their name, possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object. C'est mon livre. In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject his sister, her brother. But in French, possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify.
Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son, sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context. Elle lit son livre. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon, ton, and son are followed by a vowel. Il est mon ami. Liaison also occurs with all plural forms, since they all end in s. Ils sont mes amis. Mon, ton, and son are used before a feminine singular noun that starts with a vowel or silent h. Elision to m', t', or s' does not occur. Elle est mon amie.
To conjugate, drop the -re to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense, as demonstrated below for the present tense. Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs, -re verbs are not very common.
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Consonant Beau Nouveau Vieux. Sentences Placement As you have already learned, most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French. Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative, you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced, and each lesson now gives much more information.
Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Lesson 2. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in it, but if you would like a preview, read it, and if not, continue on to the school section.
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G: Introduction to Moods and Tenses Like the above section, this is also optional. You will eventually learn everything in here. Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year, they descend in France. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. While in English, you would say my hand or your hand, the definite article is almost always used in French. The hand is broken if you speak about your own hand. It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb.
It varies from other '-re' verbs in the plural conjugation, by adding a 'v'.
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Lire is an irregular french verb, meaning to read. It's plural conjugation adds an additional 's'. With most verbs, that auxiliary verb is avoir. Auxiliary Verb - Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. We have played. You have played. He has played. They have played. The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. Also, try and reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are simply irregular. Voir is an irregularly conjugated -re verb. How old are you?
French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horsemeat. For these products, go to a charcuterie. However, a lot of boucheries are also charcuteries, and are called boucherie-charcuterie 2. In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread; e. Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action the verb , the direct object is the one that is affected by the action.
A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre voit le cambrioleur. Pierre sees the burglar. Pierre le voit. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me, m' te, t' le, l' English me1. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense, a tense that uses a past participle, the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle.
For example, in the phrase Je les ai eus, or I had them, the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object, les, was referring to a masculine object, and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom? He gives some bread to Pierre. Il lui donne du pain. The following table shows the various types of indirect object pronouns: French me, m' te, t'.
The indirect object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do.
When me, te, nous, and vous are used in a perfect tense, the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. Other -exer Verbs peser - to weigh mener - to carry out emmener - to take along amener - to bring surmener - to overwork lever - to raise soulever - to raise.
G: -yer verbs -yer verbs are irregular -er verbs. When y is part of the last syllable, it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. In the present indicative of -yer verbs, this affects all forms except nous and vous. Other -yer Verbs appuyer - to support employer - to employ essayer - to try essuyer - to wipe nettoyer - to clean tutoyer - to address as tu, to call someone informally. G: Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles.
V: Practise Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: 1. Est-ce que vous avez des cerises? Marie : Oui Useful vocabulary: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez The preposition de can indicate an origin, contents, possession, cause, manner, and several other things which will be covered later. When le follows de, the de and le combine into du. Similarly, de and les combine into des. Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems. Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on.
One would normally use "une place" whenever "a seat" is used in English. Prenez place! No article before place, you should not say Prenez la place Les films sont fascinants! Vous aimez les films? Venir The most common -enir verb is venir. The verb venir is translated to to come. When it means to come from, venir is used with the preposition de. Nous venons du stade. You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action.
Directions Sometimes when you go out, you may get lost, or come across someone who is lost. This should help you ask for and give directions. Je suis perdu. Je cherche De rien. G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly, and normally follow the -er conjugation scheme. A common -rir verb is ouvrir. Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form, -ir is replaced with -ert for these verbs.
In a general case, these verbs indicate a change in state or position. I went to the cinema. I came to France. The train has arrived. She left to go to work. I stayed home. He returned to the restaurant. I fell into the pool. I was born in october. He died in It happened in front of the house. I climbed to the top. He got out of the train. I went out with my friends. I entered my room. He came back early from school. Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object For Example: Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes bagages" becomes: J'ai descendu mes bagages.
Yet another example but with ils instead of Je:. Ils sont sortis with direct object "leur passeport" becomes: Ils ont sorti leur passeport. Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. If the subject is masculine singular, there is no change in the past participle. If the subject is feminine singular, an -e is added to the past participle. If the subject is masculine plural, an -s is added to the past participle.
If the subject is feminine plural, an -es is added to the past participle. I respond to the questions. Note that lui and leur, and not y, are used when the object refers to a person or persons. Replacement of Places - there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de for which en is used. Les hommes vont en France. The men go to France - The men go there. Note that en, and not y is used when the preposition of the object is de.
However, if the subject were to act on someone else, the verb is no longer reflexive; instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct object. Je m'habille: I get myself dressed. Je t'habille: I get you dressed. Pronominal verbs are verbs that, put simply, include pronouns.
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These pronouns are me, te, se, nous, and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify. There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, and naturally pronominal verbs. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. Je me lave. Nous nous lavons. Ils se lavent. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. Je vais me laver. Je ne vais pas me laver. Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs, people perform actions to each other. Nous nous aimons. Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.
Tu te souviens? Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular, whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses. Falloir expresses general necessities, such as "To live, one must eat" or "To speak French well, one must conjugate verbs correctly. Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object pronoun, in gender and plurality. Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb.
Reciprocal Verbs Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun.
Naturally Pronominal Verbs In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.
Otherwise, the past participle agrees with the subject. Elle s'est souvenue. Le chien se couche. Note that assis e es , the past participle of s'asseoir to sit , does not change in the masculine plural form. The most common -ger verb is manger. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is adding an e after the g. This only applies in the nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included.
Other -ger Verbs changer - to change exiger - to require nager - to swim soulager - to relieve voyager - to travel. G: Boire The verb boire is translated to to drink. G: Partitive Article The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As learned earlier, de and le contract combine into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l' is used in front of vowels.
When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article le, la, les is used at other times, and the indefinite article un, une in yet another set of situations. In general "de" refers to a part of food a piece of pie whereas the definite article le refers to a food in general I like pie in general.
The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food I would like a whole pie. When speaking about preferences, use the definite article: J'aime la glace. When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article. I ate some pie. In the negative construction, certain rules apply. As one has learned in a previous lesson, un or une changes to de meaning, in this context, any in a negative construction.
Similarly, du, de la, or des change to de in negative constructions. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf? G: En To say 'some of it' without specifying the exact object, the pronoun 'en' can be used. Additionally, 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J'ai besoin d'argent, if the idea of money has already been raised, it can be stated as 'J'en ai besoin'. This is because en replaces du, de la or des when there the noun is not specifically mentioned in that sentence. Like with 'me', 'te' and other pronouns, en meaning 'some' comes before the verb.
We will have one more before the end of the semester, so make sure to be in class! Similar to comparisons with adjectives. Avec des partenaires p. We will on Monday. I apologize for the inconvenience. UMTech did fix the problem after class. Bon week-end! Volontaires pour lire. La France, La Louisiane, etc. Devoirs, rappels, etc. Most people did well on these! People worked on this together in class. You will NOT be tested in this information.
Volontaires pour lire le texte. Perspectives culturelles.
Jan Myrdal, Un village de la Chine populaire, Paris, Éditions Gallimard, - Persée
No regular class on Friday, just come to your appointment in our regular classroom Jones If you need to change your time, please contact me right away. Interviews Interviews If you have an excuse for missing or not having it on time, please let me know so you can get full credit. Please see the review activities above. Can leave a little extra if you really like your service or meal.
The chapter test for Module 7 is on Monday. Nous sommes vendredi! Vous aimez le vendredi? Rappel : en remplace de, du, de la, etc. Avant before! It sounds like people were able to get the gist and some of the humor Un raisin? Make sure to read the pages and review your notes every day before class. If you can do the sorts of things that are on the review, you should do well on the test. If you were absent , please let me know if you have an excuse so we can schedule a make-up.
Quiz 1. Quick review. Administrative things syllabus, etc. Information about iLrn , including the course code you need to sign up for our section of FREN and info on how to buy it or do a trial. Transition to French! Add to cart. Wish List. This product contains two different mini-books for french emergent readers about Food.
They are ready to use print and staple. Each book is available in 3 different versions: - coloring book pictures and sentences included. PreK , Kindergarten , 1 st , 2 nd , Homeschool. Une saine alimentation nutrition. Kindergarten , 1 st , 2 nd , Homeschool. Printables , Posters , Science Centers. Lesson Plans Bundled , Activities , Minilessons.
Merci Always Academic. Activities , Handouts. Trouve-le: Les Aliments! Based on the game Spot it, this card game is a fun way to have your students practice their French more in depth French food vocabulary! This set includes basic foods from all of the various food groups dairy, grains, protein, fats, condiments, drinks, fruits and vegetables and is almost TWICE. Not Grade Specific. I exclusively work with authentic material and introduce the 6 AP themes.
Merci Al. Examinations - Quizzes , Other. Health , Life Skills , Problem Solving. Plusieurs images sont incluses. PowerPoint Presentations , Mini-Course. This free board game will make an excellent addition to your Healthy Eating unit.