Ludwig Schneller, the founder of an orphanage for Christian and Moslem children in Jerusalem, which was ruled by the Ottomans at that time. He was allowed to talk to Wilhelm II, and told him about the continuing campaign of murder in Anatolia. But I have good reasons for this. Do you imagine that such atrocities leave me cold, that I have no feelings for these unfortunate Christians? What matters is taking the right course to help them. The Turks and their sultan have been enraged because the European powers always use such atrocities, some of which they have instigated themselves, as an excuse to tear another piece out of Turkey each time, to which they have no God-given or man-given right.
That gave them the unfortunate idea of gradually getting rid of all the Christians, so that these powers will no longer have any reason to intervene, and cloak their robbing of those lands with their alleged concern for the Christians The Sultan is a very intelligent man. He saw through the double-dealing that hides entirely different intentions, and this intensifies his hostility towards the Christians.
This is why I have taken a different course, and one I believe is more intelligent, and at any rate more Christian. I do not return evil for evil, but rather encounter the man, who is only becoming more and more gloomy from all of this, with Christian friendliness, and appeal to his conscience. And because he knows very well that we are the only ones who are not thinking of annexations of any kind, he believes in my selfless friendship, and listens to what I have to say.
It will be seen, when everything is published one day, that I am the only one who has interceded for the Armenians, and has really been of service to them. This quotation, of matchless hypocrisy and hubris, proves that Wilhelm II had not the slightest intention of halting the Turkish butcher of the Armenians and his vassals, not even when, seventeen years later, the campaigns of murder intensified to a genocide the likes of which the world had not seen before.
The building was demolished in because it had been hit by a bomb in the Second World War. He had signed contracts for further deliveries of rifles, amounting to hundreds of thousands, there. In return, the Turkish officers of the various commissions of acceptance were treated extremely obligingly in Oberndorf. Wilhelm Mauser and his development engineer Fidel Feederle were awarded the very highest orders from the hand of the Sultan.
Mauser reciprocated with "twenty luxury rifles with magnificent engraving and gold and silver inlays, splendidly packaged in walnut cases lined with red velvet". The Ottoman Empire was heavily armed for it: almost a million long rifles, carbines, machine guns and pistols from Oberndorf, as well as thousands of field-pieces from Krupp, formed the backbone of its armament. The fleet was commanded by the German Admiral Wilhelm Souchon. Now there was no holding back for the Turks, either. As a first step, they planned to drive the Russians back out of the Armenian regions in the Caucasus, and reconquer those regions that had formerly belonged to the Ottoman Empire.
But the winter campaign turned into a disaster. The Third Army, in charge of the eastern front, was insufficiently equipped for this—there were neither suitable means of transportation, nor winter clothing, nor sufficient food for the Turks fighting in deep snow. A large part of them froze or starved to death, or died of diseases. Of the roughly one hundred thousand men of the Third Army, only about ten thousand survived.
Only a small portion had fallen in battle against the Russians, who sheltered behind their fortified positions on the Sarikamis plateau. When the news of the utter defeat spread in January , the Turkish officers and their German commander, General Bronsart von Schellendorf, needed a scapegoat urgently. This picture was completed by rumors making the rounds that Armenian soldiers had deserted, or even turned their guns on their comrades-in-arms.
The fact that the Armenian member of parliament Armen Garo had gone from Constantinople to Tbilisi even before the war broke out, and—contrary to the declarations of loyalty to the Ottoman Empire of other prominent Armenians — was busy assembling units of Armenian volunteers there, who were intended to march into eastern Anatolia with the Russians. In order to exonerate themselves, Enver, Bronsart and company soon claimed that the reason for the defeat had been the hostile Armenian population behind the front.
This tale was presented again and again until the end of the First World War as justification for the expulsion of the Armenians from the areas in Anatolia where they lived, and their murder, and as the reason why the German officers in the general staffs of the Turkish army did not make every effort to halt the murderers when the genocide of the Armenians began.
There are almost no films documenting the massacres of the Armenians. And the photos that exist usually show piles of corpses after the shootings, or victims of hanging. So it is difficult to classify the victims by the way in which they were killed. Many were driven into groups and shot, others beaten to death with clubs, beheaded with sabers, or taken out to sea and thrown overboard. It is important to note that regular Turkish soldiers and gendarmes—and sometimes their German comrades-in-arms—were involved in almost all the actions of the systematic genocide by expulsion, shooting, hanging, drowning, and starving that started in Most of them were armed with Mauser rifles, and the officers with Mauser pistols.
One of the few photographs of expulsions by military force dates from April It shows a column of Armenian deportees from Harput, on the way to a prison camp near Mezireh, covered by Mauser rifles by Turkish troops. Observations by soldiers who took part in the atrocities are eloquent testimony to the use of German weapons in the genocide.
Some come from the pen of the German major Count Wolffskehl from Urfa, a town with a large proportion of Armenian inhabitants. Things had been quiet there for quite a long time. Most of the Armenians took shelter in their houses, and tried not to go out on the streets… The Turkish infantry stationed in Urfa did not feel able to conquer the barricaded Armenian quarter, and turned to the high command in Aleppo for support. When our artillery fire struck these houses and killed a lot of them, the others wanted to withdraw to the church itself.
But the church door is on the northern side. So they had to go around the church, over the open churchyard. But our infantry had already reached the houses adjoining the churchyard to the left, and now gunned down heaps of the fleeing men in the churchyard. The infantry which I used for the main assault, the Second Battalion of the nd Infantry Regiment, did very well generally, and advanced very pluckily.
After the massacres in March in Zeitun, about 4, Armenians, fathers, mothers, and children, fled from the Armenian villages of the Musa Dagh in August up to the high plateau of the mountain, and took shelter there. Count Wolffskehl reports in a letter to his father: "Tomorrow we will be on our way again, this time to Antioch [now Antakya], and from there to the coast.
Things are rather hot there. A lot of Armenians who have only insufficient understanding of the government's friendly offer to relocate them elsewhere, and have lodged themselves with kith and kin, and unfortunately also with numerous rifles and ammunition, in the mountains somewhere between Antioch and the sea, with the expressed intent of not allowing themselves to be driven out Now the difficulty of catching them is simply that one has to attack them from the sea-facing side.
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But for eight days now, six French cruisers have been lying there, that are in contact with the rebels by signaling, and take our troops, as soon as they show themselves on the slopes facing the sea, under extensive shellfire, against which our field-pieces can do little, of course… The French have already carried away two ship-fulls after the failure of the st Regiment. If it was up to me, they could have the whole lot of them. I think it would be a wonderful solution if as many Armenians as possible left the country, under the condition of never returning.
Turkey has no benefit from them at all, but only difficulties. After 53 days of siege and attack by the Turks, they had been able to flee down the steep slope of the Musa Dagh to the shore. Lifeboats from the French and British warships took them on board, while the latter kept the Turkish troops on the slopes of the mountain in check with their naval guns.
It should be added that German exported arms provided the material basis for the genocide, and German officers the ideological basis. This is harsh, but useful. For the time being it is therefore your duty to keep silent. Later, if direct attacks from abroad because of German complicity should occur, the question must be treated with the greatest caution and restraint, and it must always be emphasized that the Turks were severely provoked by the Armenians.
Holstein wired to the German embassy in Constantinople on 10 June " Armenian men, women, and children deported from Diyarbakir to here were all slaughtered on the journey by raft here; the keleks arrived here empty yesterday. Corpses and human members have been drifting past in the river for a few days. I have expressed my deepest abhorrence for these crimes to the government here. The embassy feels all the more obliged to draw the attention of the Ottoman government to this point since public opinion tends to believe that Germany, as a friendly and allied power of Turkey, had condoned or even instigated these acts of violence.
Our sole objective is to keep Turkey on our side until the end of the war, whether or not Armenians perish because of it. If the war lasts for some length of time, we will need Turkey very much. What is worthwhile is to try to find out who profited from the genocide, and how large their estimated profit was. But this is a difficult endeavor, because reliable documents are lacking, and many of the firms that profited have changed their owners in the century since the genocide. Still, let us make the attempt.
Together with the deliveries of rifles, the other arms exports to the Ottoman Empire were already on a large scale between and A dissertation from gives precise details. Converted to the value of the euro today, this would be, in a conservative estimate, orders amounting to more than million euros. Further orders to the German arms industry followed after , including large ones for warships. Since the demand for his sewing machines was not as large as hoped, he switched to the side-arms and ammunition business, producing first artillery ammunition from on.
Between and he expanded his business to arms and ammunition for the German and Russian governments. The production of the armament was later extended by agreement with the holder of the patents on the Maxim machine guns and machine cannons. As a result, the firm managed to obtain a monopoly position for small arms such as long rifles and carbines, and for ammunition production. In the end, Krupp always won; it had better connections to the German Emperor and his Imperial government. The two competitors did not hesitate to bring their haggling over the most favorable bid all the way to parliament.
A steel core for a certain gun cost 35 marks from Krupp at the turn of the year , while the Ehrhardt-Werke only asked The price of this steel core gradually sank so far that it could be bought for only The steel core for a cm caliber gun, for example, cost marks from Krupp, whereas the same material in the same year cost only 89 marks from the Ehrhardt-Werke. Despite the fact that the Ehrhardt-Werke had lowered their price to The Turkish Minister of War, on the other hand, was probably happy to be able to play off the competitors for his orders worth millions against one another, unless subordinates in the Ministry had already decided the competition beforehand for themselves, by accepting the biggest bribe offered.
For the roughly , rifles delivered to Turkey by , at unit prices of 70 to 80 marks, the total sales came to about 70 million reichsmarks. In addition, there was the revenue from many hundred of millions of cartridges, which presumably cost several times that amount. On 28 August , Isidor Loewe died. We have no information about his heirs. Under the peace treaty concluded in Versailles, all German arms manufacturers were prohibited from producing weapons. In part, the companies switched to civilian products, for example Mauser switched to calculating machines, measuring instruments, sewing machines, and automobiles.
The machines for arms production had been sent to Brno in Czechoslovakia, where the firm CZ continued the production of rifles in the period between the two world wars, and manufactured about 2. CZ successfully supplied to the former Mauser customers in Latin America. The number of employees increased to 9, In an anniversary publication for years' existence of the Mauser rifle factory in July , the new owners of the Mauser Works the Loewe firm had already been "Aryanized" in expressed their thanks to Adolf Hitler: "With the seizure of power by National Socialism, the resurgence of our works after a period of decline and oppression began.
We shall never forget the years in which an extorted treaty left our factories helpless before the brutal interventions of an inter-Allied military control commission, whose goal was to annihilate the Mauser Works. This memory should make us aware of the magnitude of our obligation towards the man who raised us all from shame and disgrace to honor and esteem again, liberated German industry from oppressive chains, and gave the German worker jobs and bread again, our Leader Adolf Hitler. Their obeisance was to a man who said the following in a speech to the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces on 22 January , quite in the tradition of Field Marshal von der Goltz: "I have given the order….
So I have formed up my Death's Head units, only in the East for the time being, with the order to put to death men, women, and children of Polish descent and language mercilessly and ruthlessly. Only in this way will we win the lebensraum we need. If the goal of the laity is to be blessed or to lead a happy life in this world, they would have to believe and to do what the clergy or clerisy prescribed and prompted them to believe and do.
For this reason they were excluded from that in which the supernatural light is found: the Holy Scriptures and their use.source site
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As for the natural light, they were told that the truths discovered through this would be harmful even in this life, unless they were previously examined and approved by the clergy who alone possess supernatural light. Now it can be understood why we said above that the suppression of the natural light was one of the central pillars of papalism. Once the laity were convinced that they should do and believe everything that the clergy had ordered, and imagined that their temporal Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] and eternal happiness depended on this conviction, then it is easy to see that they fell into blind obedience, and thus willingly entered into the greatest slavery.
As soon as the clerisy had achieved this, it needed no great deliberation or study to bring the laity under their yoke. The clerics increasingly fell ever more deeply into ignorance, to such an extent that they could hardly read and write Latin, let alone engage in useful arts and sciences.
If one or other of the laity wanted to use the light of his mind or of the Holy Scriptures to oppose this ignorance and lust for power, he could not do so for fear of his property and his honor or even of being executed as the worst of villains. This became even more pressing after the clergy began to destroy emperors, kings, and princes by excommunication, deposing them from office, and other similar political acts, all because the rulers wanted to use their reason and did not want to be made fools anymore.
Most of the laity did not even think about using their sound reason during their military or court service, or in the course of their daily work and agricultural labor. This is partially due to the fact that by nature people live in unreason and foolishness, and it is rare that someone finds the path toward wisdom on his own, if the example and deeds of others do not guide him. This was absent at that time because of the corrupted condition of the clergy. Sound reason was also lacking because the clergy was bent on supporting the desires of the most powerful, the richest, and the most cunning, turning a blind eye toward them no matter what they did.
The main thing was that they worshipped the clergy, that they bequeathed them charitable goods, monasteries, hospitals, poorhouses, orphanages, and generous endowments; and that they helped to denounce, drive away, persecute, and even burn the other party that opposed the clergy.
The clergy went so far as to deprive the laity of the common certainty of their external senses. If someone induced me so far as to not believe what my senses see, hear, and so on, and if that someone talked me into believing the opposite, then he could make me jump into water or fire at his pleasure. Or he would make me do the most dangerous and adverse things by fooling me into believing that they were the most reasonable, graceful, and useful.
John, 29 who proved the honesty of his teaching to his listeners by nothing more powerfully convincing than simply preaching what his eyes had seen, his hands had touched, and his ears had heard, stands in stark contrast to that which the clergy will have us believe; namely, that the only certain thing is that of which my eyes see nothing, my hands cannot touch, but rather in which they feel everywhere the opposite.
Miserable condition of the higher and lower schools. Origin of the four faculties One would not be astonished about all of this if one took a look at the appearance and condition of schools in Christendom during those times. Here is a brief sketch of the state of affairs.
After the western empire had been destroyed by several German and Scythian peoples and the oriental empire by the Saracens, public schools were devastated. From the sixth century onward in the western empire they suffered ruin in Italy, France, England, Spain, and Africa; and from the seventh century also in the oriental empire, in Asia, Greece, Egypt, and so on.
It is true that in the fifth century St. Benedict had established in Italy many new cloisters and monasteries as well as the rules of life belonging to them, and that he had arranged for schools in them. So, after the decline of public schools, only monks were regarded as learned people, until King Alfred reestablished public schools at Oxford in England and Charlemagne at Paris in France, after which more and more public schools began to appear.
At that time the greatest ignorance reigned in the monasteries, and anyone who knew something about philosophy, natural philosophy, and mathematics was regarded as a sorcerer. These so-called liberal arts were already being taught in the schools of St. Augustine, who had a particular liking for Plato.
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At that time [during the period of monastic education] nothing was known about metaphysics or ethics. When Aristotle, who had been ignored for a long time, was taken up again by the Saracens and translated into Arabic and then brought to Spain by them, several French professors also acquired a taste for him. In particular St. Bernard helped to make Abelard into a heretic.
In fact, to the degree that it was separated from the liberal arts, Real-philosophie —or physics, metaphysics, and ethics—was taught publicly in accordance with the Aristotelian teachings. One may also find many useful, pertinent things in Johannes Filesaco, in that he wrote a treatise on the origin of the statutes of the theological faculty in Paris. The useless ethics of Aristotelian philosophy and of the schoolmen in the faculty of philosophy The monks who were supposed to teach the youth at the universities were ignoramuses.
They were incapable of using their own basic reason. These people, who were supposed to set the minds of others into motion, had to be given certain books as crutches so that their own intellects could be trained. But a secret state-interest was also involved; for if it had been left to the teachers to use their own solid reason on the issues of concern to them, then they would have soon discovered the secret of clericalist and papalist power and its idolatrous standing, and they would have imparted this realization to the laity.
Clerical prudence thus required that the teachers be bound to certain books, for if these books were themselves mired in the prejudice of human authority, this prejudice could be more virulently spread to the audience, as the foundation of papalism. The philosophers had so far only taught the seven liberal arts according to Augustine or Cassiodor.
But since Aristotle had not written anything about mathematics, mathematical studies became increasingly neglected. Let us now see how things stood with moral philosophy and natural law at the universities, and let us begin with the philosophers at that time. However, they are filled with unnecessary subtleties and a useless wordiness in the Aristotelian way. Aristotle, like all pagan philosophers, believed in the principle that correcting the understanding was sufficient for improving the will.
In fact he does teach about virtues; yet regarding what they actually consist in, and how true virtues can be distinguished from pseudovirtues, he says little or nothing. Moreover, he says little or nothing about the means of becoming virtuous. It is a fact that he did not write any books on the prudence required to give counsel or on the laws of nature.
Theology thus soon usurped ethics, leaving the philosophers with nothing to work with. It is certain that ethics was so poorly taught by the first philosophers at the universities established by the pope that it could not attract anybody. The profession of the politician [ Politiker ] did not develop until much later.
Pufendorf has remarked in his treatise on papal monarchy that it was one of the secrets of the papalist state to refrain from teaching politics at the universities, or else to do so only Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] according to the interests of the clergy. We will talk more about this elsewhere, since politics and natural law and also moral philosophy—which are remarkably different from each other—are frequently confused.
The miserable condition of natural law among the jurists The Corpus juris received by the lawyers contains a lot of fine things about the natural law, but it was of little use to law professors at law schools.
The Corpus juris thus did not contain satisfactory advice on how to distinguish between natural law and specifically Roman law. The lawyers themselves disagreed about this, and the Corpus juris was thus patched together from conflicting opinions, regardless of differences in levels of learning among the jurists.
Even if not all of the jurists who compiled the Pandects were deeply learned, still, most of them were, and they were quite familiar with natural law. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the Corpus juris itself contains teachings which confuse the general law of nations with the Roman law. This occurs, for example, in the chapters on paternal authority, on the authority of masters over their servants, on the ways of acquiring property according to law of nations, on imprisonment, and on the right [of exiles or refugees] to return.
I have already shown in a separate treatise that the good lawyers—who had advised Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] Diocletian 49 to reverse contracts of sale if someone was injured by more than half—understood neither moral philosophy nor the law or nature, and still less the nature of buying and selling.
But let the Corpus juris be as it may, the professors of the newly established faculty of law were supposed to explain it, and they were such people who had a lot of perseverance and diligence and had even memorized the Corpus juris by heart. But this did not help the cause. They lacked the basic means for interpreting the Corpus juris, namely philosophy, 50 and through it ethics and politics, as well as knowledge of Roman history.
The smartest and the most notable among them wrote plenty of commentaries on the Corpus juris, and these glosses soon attained the same standing as the laws themselves. We can find signs everywhere, though, that ethics and natural law were not the forte of these good people, not through any fault of theirs but because of the circumstances of their period.
Even though many followed who wanted to combine Roman history and other congenial studies with jurisprudence, nevertheless, they became for the most part addicted to grammatical disputations or got stuck within the limits of Roman law and only very rarely engaged with natural law and the law of nations. Both classes 51 maintained the general view that disputes between crowned heads like kings and princes could and should be solved according to the Corpus juris.
The Corpus juris canonici considers natural law as little as the imperial Corpus juris [ civilis ] considers divine laws. But the Corpus juris canonici contains more and it is arranged in a such way that a credulous person would swear that everything was only of a divine and suprarational character. However, anyone who scrutinizes the secrets of the papalist clergy will quickly see that canon law aims only at subverting all principles of sound reason concerning the true difference between good and evil, as well as the fundamental principles of government and secular authority.
Under the guise of zeal for the glory of God and with much chatter, clerical power attempts to arrogate these principles to itself. It is much to be wished that Protestant lawyers would show in even more detail the politically erroneous state-secrets of papalist law. Similar condition of the university theologians who at the same time continued the old sect of the orthodox The faculty of theology seems to have originated in the following way: The school in Paris was unhappy with Peter Abelard and Peter Lombard, because they began to teach Aristotle instead of Augustine.
But it happened soon afterward that Peter Lombard, who had been the teacher of the prince, became bishop of Paris. As such, he used his authority to give great weight to Aristotelian teachings, obtaining permission from the kings of France to establish a separate faculty of theology at the university. This work Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] consisted of four books. In the first he dealt with the unity of God and with the Holy Trinity. It is likely that in these books Lombard tried to unite the teachings of Augustine with those of Aristotle.
The entire work contains a mishmash of theology and philosophy. The Holy Scriptures are explained with the principles of pagan philosophy, while in moral philosophy and natural law the old ignorance is perpetuated. The latter had not only written a commentary on Lombard, but had also composed a new system of theology.
Even teachings belonging to moral philosophy and natural law began to be appropriated by the theology faculty, under various titles. Rudolf Hospinianus has Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] also written much concerning the origin and advance of Jesuits in his books. Scholars who had discovered this miserable condition even before the Reformation In all times one finds various men who contradicted the confusion and blindness propagated by the orthodox Scholastics. But the strongest party eventually suppressed and persecuted them as heretics in the time-honored way, so that little testimony concerning them has reached us.
With regard to their works, several were published right before and around the time of the Reformation. In his chronicle Aventin complained much about the corruption of true scholarship brought by scholastic theology. Erasmus not only revealed the errors of scholastic theology and philosophy in his writings, Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] but also painted a vivid portrait, in sharp and biting tones, of the malice, foolishness, and ignorance of the monks and professors, partly in his Colloquies and partly in his book called the Praise of Folly.
He told me that even the cleverest would find instruction in this book by Erasmus and in the other one, the Morias Enkomion. Since that time I found this to be true through frequent reading, and I offer this good advice to all those striving to recognize the masked papalism of our times in places where one would least expect to find it.
On the origin of esoteric theology But we should not forget the esoterics or mystics. We have already seen that their teachings contradicted those of the orthodox, but that they fell into the same abuse as the orthodox and became a pillar of papalism. In his Schediasmata historico —which I republished several years ago under the title Origines historiae philosophicae et ecclesiasticae —my blessed father has compiled many remarkable things regarding the origin and progress of mystic theology.
Briefly, the state of affairs is as follows: It is known that the Jews had a secret doctrine called Kabbalah, which they claim God had given to Moses alongside the commandments. Moses had passed on this Doctrina cabbalistica through oral revelation to Joshua or to the seventy-two elders, Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] and they passed it on to others in the same way. But it is equally certain that pagan philosophers like Plato and the Stoics contributed their share. Even during the times of the apostles, Simon Magus introduced an abominable heresy into Christianity.
The heretics who descended from Simon spread under various names in the first and second centuries. Since at that time the teachers of the Christian church had to engage with these people, they allowed that true Christians should also be perfectly spiritually gifted with knowledge of holy things, although they showed Christians a quite different way of attaining this knowledge, perfection, and spirituality. Clement of Alexandria developed this, writing a book about it and striving for it in all his writings. This otherwise famous teacher of the church fell much in love with pagan, Stoic, and Platonic philosophy and grafted parts of it onto Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] apostolic Christian doctrine wherever possible.
He transferred entire Stoic paradoxes to Christian doctrine. He borrowed from Plato the doctrine of the emanation of the human soul from the divine being, together with the doctrine of the four degrees of virtue namely, that through certain virtues man would turn from beast to human, through others from human to angel, then from angel to god, and finally from a god to the highest god.
He also copied the later so-called threefold way of mystical theology, which the falsely named Dionysius the Areopagite presented at great length. During the lifetime of Clement of Alexandria, at the end of the second century, this esoteric doctrine with its suppression of sound reason had already progressed so far that by the fourth century it had given rise to a particular kind of heretic, the Messalians.
That is why they were also called enthusiasts. Monasticism contributed much to this. In fact, in the fifth century this esoteric monastic doctrine, that man can live in this world free of all passions, finally gave birth to Pelagianism. The state of esoteric theology among schoolmen As we have already explained above, the esoterics and the orthodox cultivated opposing doctrines, but they united in order to support the power of the clergy and the papacy. Initially, there could not have been much unity between the orthodox Scholastics and the esoterics, because Aristotle and Plato were not bosom friends.
The orthodox Scholastics tried to elevate their Aristotle and to push Plato aside, but the latter returned as the foundation of the esoteric theology. It is known from church history that the monk Bernard of Clairvaux, ranked by scholars of mysticism as a leading figure, vehemently persecuted the first orthodox Scholastic, Peter Abelard, simply on account of his Aristotelianism, even labeling him a heretic.
Nonetheless, the two varieties agreed in this: just as the orthodox began to turn dogmatic theology into an art form or into certain systems or compendia of maxims, so too Richard of St. Victor began at the same time to turn esoteric theology into a system. They confirmed once again that the two ways of writing and teaching agreed in robbing men of their sound reason and therefore of their freedom, and forced their souls, bodies, and conscience under the yoke of tyranny. The reasons why the often-discussed misery could not be eliminated during and after the Reformation.
Revival of the orthodox doctrine One might have thought that in addition to other good works, the reformers Luther and Zwingli 79 together with other instruments of God, would have introduced the difference and the proper use of the natural and supernatural light into both the church pulpit and the university podium.
In their writings and books against the papacy, one finds many fine sentences dedicated to this end. Thus they readily rebuke Aristotelian philosophy, vividly portraying its uselessness, which leads only to strife. In their conflict with the papal doctrine of transubstantiation they show that the natural light cannot be completely set aside in theological questions, and that the words of the Holy Scriptures cannot be explained in an unreasonable way.
However, the transformation of such deeply rooted errors can be achieved neither by the work of a single person nor in a single lifetime. The unfortunate quarrel that arose and then escalated between the two reformers was thus one of the major reasons why this very necessary investigation made no progress. This quarrel was over the article of faith dealing with the Eucharist and the central question of the use of natural light in explaining the Holy Scriptures.
Through this dispute the two doctrines of the orthodox Scholastics and the esoteric theologians made their way back into the two Protestant communities. It was thought that if the denunciation of heretics did not proceed apace, then the professors would have nothing to dispute about at the universities. Polemical theology would thus fall by the wayside, and the cost of maintaining theology professors would be in vain. This restless and fractious theology served to perpetuate the quarrel between the papalist and the Protestant theologians, as well as preventing peace between the two Protestant churches.
Yes, if they had nothing better to do, these theologians fought amongst themselves and denounced each other as heretics year after year, as church history attests with innumerable examples throughout the centuries and, especially, in each decade following the Reformation. Revival of esoteric theology Nonetheless, esoteric theology also spread among the Protestants. Many causes contributed to this fact.
First of all, the blessed Luther had the German Theology, a mystical booklet, republished and provided a preface for it. Vexation with the scholastic teaching, with whose intrigues and tricks he was familiar from the monastery, led him to do this [publication].
He also found that the mystical writings pressed for a holy Christian life and that the sharpening of the understanding for its own sake was not prized by them, as it had been in scholastic doctrine. Many Christian theologians felt sorrow in their hearts that Protestant Christianity should be continuously kept in discord through the theological quarrels.
They witnessed the oafish and dissolute character of the university students, especially the students of theology, and saw that if such dissolute people were appointed to churches and schools, an unchristian dissolute life would spread through all ranks of Protestant Christians. They believed that it would be better if they taught a peaceful Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] theology instead of theological polemics, because Christ was called the Prince of Peace and had left peace and love as a sign to his disciples and students.
But they could not readily speak of all this, owing to the power and standing of scholastic doctrine. Johannes Valentin Andreae was a clever and thoughtful theologian who wrote at the beginning of the seventeenth century, and his writings can be recommended to all impartial lovers of the truth.
It is highly regrettable that this learned and Christian man fell into the hands of the mystical theology of those ignorant times, for he fared like all mystics. In their discovery of general corruption and misery, and in their exposure of the folly of scholastic teaching, they are incomparable, they are great and to be praised for upholding a virtuous Christian life. When it comes to how this is to be implemented, however, their counsels are inadequate. The writings of the good Andreae, especially those dealing with the creation of a Christian republic, show that this was also the case with him.
Summary condition of moral philosophy and the natural law at the beginning of the seventeenth century So, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, moral philosophy, ethics, natural law, and the like were in a pitiful and terminal condition, among both Catholics and Protestants. In their books called On Justice and Right or whatever other titles they used , the Catholic schoolmen taught everything needed to buttress the standing of the pope and the clergy and to keep the secular authorities and other laity under their thumb.
When it suited their purposes, they mixed natural and international law, Mosaic, Judaic, Greek, Roman, imperial, and papal laws, copying happily from each other. They drove kings into illegitimate wars Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] under the pretense of spreading the name of Christ and bringing the infidels under the yoke of the Christian religion. Drawing on the works of Aristotle and their own books, they knew how to present such wars as lawful and laudable.
Everything the laity did out of obedience to the clergy was supposed to be good and right, even deserving of heaven. The things that the laity did according to their sound reason, however, or according to the clear words of the Holy Scriptures, were supposed to be evil, unjust, and deserving of hellfire, if this was not in accord with the purposes of the Scholastics.
The Jesuit Mariana even defended the notion that kings who followed the wrong religion could be murdered. But this also happened because when they dealt with justice and injustice, the jurists were accustomed to deriving everything from imperial and canon law, as if the two corpora provided the core of natural law and the law of nations, from which conflicts between great rulers had to be settled. Never less than astute, the Jesuits supported both sides of the theological divide.
Chapter One. Catholic Preaching And The German Reformation? Postils And Their Production, 1520–1535
Some of them spread the doctrines of the Scholastics, while others sought to unify esoteric theology with scholastic. As a result of the fact that the Augsburg Confession 86 is oriented around a theological system and not around Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] moral philosophy, natural law, or the Corpus juris, Protestant theologians, jurists, and philosophers the ones concerned with the difference between good and evil, justice and injustice allowed themselves to follow Catholic writers on these questions without any embarrassment.
Thus it happened in Protestant universities that ethics and jurisprudence were thrown together from many, sometimes opposed writers, without a proper basis. In questions of law and of conscience, many words and opinions from various authorities were compiled, but with precious little grounding or understanding.
If a mystic had dealt with the topic, then reason was cast away and faith installed in its place, or whatever the spirit had just delivered to this kind of esoteric teacher. Divine Providence uses Hugo Grotius as its instrument to bring natural law into the light Who could imagine that this general corruption among Christians, Protestant and Catholic—that this confusion, abuse, and suppression of the light of nature so deeply rooted for thousands of years—could be purged and rectified? But nothing is impossible for Providence. It does everything in its time, and when error rose highest, the breakthrough of truth was nearest.
Specious nonsense came from the teachers of the pulpit and the podium. All three faculties—theology, jurisprudence, and philosophy—were taken in by the glitter. But divine wisdom stirred a man who taught neither from the pulpit nor the podium, who was no professor of theology or law or philosophy, but who was a profound theologian, an excellent jurist, and a solid philosopher. The evil had been spread abroad by scholastic orthodoxy and esoteric theology, so he who would begin to root out this evil could be neither scholastic nor mystic.
However, he had to understand the Scholastics and grasp the inadequacy of their doctrine. No one can understand the mystics because they strive to write in an incomprehensible way and want to eradicate reason completely. He had to have experienced the persecution of the Scholastics and also had to be urged by other scholars, who were not Scholastics, to undertake this endeavor. He had to deal carefully with the moral philosophy of the Scholastics, in order to avoid exciting Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] their wrath too strongly against the reasonable moral philosophy that he was developing.
On the other hand, he did not have to fear their hatred too much because he could expect protection from elsewhere. This was the incomparable Hugo Grotius who can never be praised enough. One could expand at length on this portrayal if the pen were not already exhausted and drawing near to the conclusion. To put it briefly, he was already more learned in his youth than many professors will ever become. Early on he was appointed to important political offices in his homeland. His misfortune or, rather, his fortune caused him to side with the weakest party during the emerging internal unrest in his country.
For this reason he was condemned to lifelong imprisonment. Through the loyalty of his wife he was liberated in a wondrous way. In order to show that conflicts among princes, which commonly give rise to wars, should not be decided by Justinian or canon law, but by the natural law alone, he entitled his book On the Right of War and Peace.
I say beginning, for just as God does not suddenly change night to day, so it is with errors and truth. Dawn glows before the day breaks, and between the break of day and the brightness of noon there is also a great difference. However, the glory belongs to Grotius, who broke the ban first and who showed others the way to separate truth from errors. Particular benefit of the German translation of Grotius We did not notice that this error originates in the secret political machinations of the pope.
Were it to become the fashion to teach wisdom at the universities in the mother tongue, then the Scholastics might lose their authority. Is there anything that habit cannot contribute to the prejudice of human authority? Even if those in authority at the universities quarrel over the most trivial things, the poor students imagine them to be the most secret treasures of wisdom, just because they are in Latin and the unlettered cannot understand the substance.
If one presented these magnificent Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] things in the German language, and if reasonable soldiers, countrymen, noblemen, merchants, and artisans, even reasonable peasants, heard these things and wanted to know what their children are studying at such great expense, then they would cross themselves more often and show even more hostility toward the scholars than, unfortunately, is already happening in many places. Thank goodness that God has already begun to remedy this error. For about twenty years many noble minds have been endeavoring to publish in German numerous useful works of true wisdom, especially political, moral, and historical writings.
On account of his great diligence and his unpedantic scholarship, as well as his rare judgment, the translator has become known through many pleasing and useful works. Lovers of wisdom are now very much indebted to him for translating Grotius into German. What Grotius has written is so reasonable and well expressed that it is a pure pleasure to read, but he has often lacked impartial readers.
It is overlooked that his work expresses and displays essential aspects of the cultural and intellectual history of his time. Jahrhunderts Munich and Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, , p. See also Sheehan , p. The ideas expressed in this letter quickly became part of the standard language of critics, both Christian and non-Christian, of the ever-expanding economy and culture of capitalism, from Pugin to William Morris.
Stuttgart: J. Metzler, , 3. Christoph Heilmann The Conoisseur , [August ], p. This can be seen also in the so-called 'Freundschaftsbilder' Kerle Verlag, ], p. Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie, , 2. In , Dannecker made medallions of himself and his friend, the poet Schiller; he kept the one of Schiller for himself and gave Schiller the one of him 2. A typical judgment of the Bilderbibel is that of Hans Weigert , pp.
In an essay on Overbeck's drawings, Gerhard Gerkens makes a similar point. See likewise, Christoph Heilmann's review of the exhibition of the Nazarenes in Frankfurt in Connoisseur August , p. Naturally, the means of expressing their…feelings underwent a continuous process of repressing reality in every range, which consequently also meant renouncing colour, in the sense of light and atmosphere, in favour of the contour. Colour became an additional ingredient, supplementary to the disegno of the subject. Joseph Gantner Basel: Schwabe, , p.
What this intellectual art -- established in one case on a Hellenistic foundation , in the other on a Christian foundation -- stood out against was the original creative energies of the Baroque and the Rococo which at the time were fading.
Rereading Schleiermacher: Translation, Cognition and Culture | SpringerLink
These aristocratic energies were not ready to adapt to the rising democratic age; and so they were rejected as decadent by those giving thought to the new culture of the middle classes and were thus lost to living artistic tradition. See the comments of Rosenblum , p. Rather, it is a private, highly personal approach to antiquity. See also, ibid. His works would always, inevitably, bear the mark of his own time.
On the radical "modernity" of Ingres's deliberate flouting of pictorial tradition, see Fleckner , esp. The development of reflection in our life today has made it a need of ours, in relation both to our will and judgment, to cling to general considerations and to regulate the particular by them, with the result that universal forms, laws, duties, rights, maxims, prevail as determining reasons and are the chief regulator…Consequently the conditions of our present time are not favourable to art. It is not…merely that the practicing artist himself is infected by the loud voice of reflection all around him and by the opinions and judgments on art that have become customary everywhere, so that he is misled into introducing more thoughts into his work: the point is that our whole spiritual culture is of such a kind that he himself stands within the world of reflection and its relations, and could not by any act of will and decision abstract himself from it.
The writer E. Hoffmann explores the potentially tragic consequence of this situation for the artist in the tale Die Jesuitenkirche in G , written between and These preliminary practices can well last several years. Reprinted in Friedmar Apel, ed. Caspar David Friedrich in Briefen , p. Lankheit , pp. To many people those qualities appear "leblos" "lifeless" , he acknowledged, but to the practiced eye they are "bedeutend und erhaben" "noble and meaningful".
Winckelmann singled out the Dresden Madonna with Child for special praise:. In antiquity itself, Winckelmann noted, the sculptor Myron was censured by some later writers for his "hardness. Boston: James R. Osgood, , 3. Reprinted in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Werke , 22 vols. Berlin: Aufbau Verlag, , He defended public exhibitions and public criticism of art because he saw in them a counterweight to the influence of the market.
When artists become the servants of wealth and luxury, he argued, "great talents are degraded and made to produce works of no consequence, and the subject matter of art is diminished to insignificant bambochades. Diderot himself, however, occasionally recommended works he considered of enduring value to his readers, on the grounds that they were a wise long-term investment of capital.
Ich weiss es nicht. I know not. But it is time for all artists to band together as sworn members in an everlasting union. Ernst Behler, J. Anstett, Hans Eichner, 35 vols. Keynes London: Nonesuch Press, , p. Interestingly, a large exhibition of Blake at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in elicited from the New York Times reviewer an ambivalent and uncertain reaction comparable to that produced a few months later by the Nineteenth-Century German Art exhibition at the National Gallery in Washington.
Sieht er aber nichts in sich, so unterlasse er auch zu malen, was er vor sich sieht. If he sees nothing inside himself, he should also give up painting what he sees before his eyes. The Outline Illustrations and their Influence Ph. That is to say the quality of being unblemished by any accidental or inessential features that affect the purity of forms in a trivializing way and so disturb or diminish the effect.
Hermann Uhde-Bernays Leipzig, , pp. In drawing it is not what pleases by way of feeling but only what pleases through its form that constitutes the basis of a predisposition to taste. The colors that brighten the outline design belong to the seductiveness of a work and can indeed make the subject matter in itself pleasing to our feelings, but not worthy or beautiful. The historical significance of the emphasis on contour and line, its anticipation of twentieth-century art, has been well pointed out by a French scholar:.
See "La Jeunesse de M. Ingres's Paolo and Francesca may well owe something to John Flaxman's illustrations for Dante's Inferno , which also inspired a drawing on the same theme by Joseph Anton Koch, an artist close to the Nazarenes. Paris: Flammarion, , 2. Italian, German, and English translations of this work appeared in , , and respectively. Seroux's stated aim was to be "the Winckelmann of the Middle Ages.
Quentin Bell has emphasized that the turn to the early Italian painters was part of the same quest as the turn to ancient models: "While the great majority of pupils of David were content to follow their master in the pursuit of classical antiquity, there was one pupil—and the most gifted—who for a time strayed into another path and sought excellence in the earlier manifestations of Italian art. Ingres could look back beyond Raphael and in his 'Paolo and Francesca' produces something that seems much closer to the Quattrocento than to the classical prototypes of his master.
Mouilleseaux Paris: Macula, ; orig. Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, 24 Sept. See Otto R. Cornelia Reiter, Ideal und Natur. According to Raczyncki, the two main strains in modern German art, the classical and the Christian, both aspire toward "truth" and are essentially idealist rather than realist in inspiration and character.
Later art historians have upheld Raczyncki's implicit association of neoclassical and Nazarene art, despite Goethe's emphasis on what separates them. Thus Hans Hildebrandt in Die Kunst des Jahrhunderts Wildpark-Potsdam: Athenaion, , pp. Overbeck] carried many of the principles of pagan classicism over into his conception of Christianity, which for him involved only mild suffering and tranquil transfiguration into beauty.
This compromise is clearly visible in the formal elaboration of his artworks. No solution other than the purely harmonious one of composition around a symmetrical axis ever occurred to Overbeck. Notwithstanding the fact that one took effect after the other in the course of history, they sprang from the same root and were parallel phenomena rather than opposites. Most recently, Klaus Lankheit has argued that the old ideal of classical and romantic as polar opposites as in the art history of Georg Dehio and Gustav Pauli is no longer acceptable.
Salomon Bartholdy's relation to the Nazarenes appears to have been somewhat ambivalent. In one letter to his niece, Fanny Mendelssohn, sister of the composer and wife of the artist Wilhelm Hensel, he expressed considerable impatience with them and their work; see Felix Gilbert, ed. Mohr, , pp. Bartholdy's ambivalence probably reflects in part the tension in the large Mendelssohn family between those who converted to Protestantism and those who, like Dorothea Schlegel and her two sons, converted to Catholicism.
See Apel ed. Mary Hottinger London: Phaidon, , p. On the prevalence of complex programmatic descriptions of history paintings in the salon livrets of early nineteenth-century France and opposition to this practice, see Beth Wright, Painting and History during the French Restoration Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , pp. The initials of the three friends—POP—are inscribed in a circle in the lower left section of the sketch.
Mit ihm und durch ihn habe ich den wahren Mai meines Lebens genossen! Mein Bruder! Deine Liebe war mir sonderlicher denn Frauenliebe! Und nun! Muss ich mit dem Gedanken vertraut zu werden versuchen, durch das Grab von dir getrennt zu werden! With him and through him I enjoyed the true Springtime of my life!
My brother! Your love was more special to me than the love of woman! And now! I have to try to get used to the idea of being separated from you by the grave. His last thoughts, on his deathbed, were of Pforr. Schnorr had been planning to make a portrait of Vittoria Caldoni, the daughter of a vineyard keeper and wine-maker in the Alban hills around Rome. He proposed to represent this much painted model over portraits of her survive with a spindle in her hand, momentarily interrupting her work and looking out at the viewer.
Bringing examples of the most outstanding portraits to my attention, he showed me that the greatest masters of the genre avoided representing the individuals whose portrait they were about to create in any kind of activity. These individuals were not represented as though the viewer had come upon them unexpectedly and by chance; rather they presented themselves to the viewer deliberately in their innermost being.
The artist…is seeking in form what is basic and permanent and he modifies and rearranges it to express his ideas. Abrams, n. The cat resembles the falcon in that both are symbols of wildness tamed and restrained. The falcon is usually taken to represent the Gentile converted to Christiantiy, the cat to represent the devil overcome by the Virgin as in Giulio Romano's Raphael-inspired Madonna with the Cat , now in the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples.
The falcon would thus be the symbol of Pforr's love of art. Heise , pp. In Pietist writing, the Braut or Betrothed, as the symbol of the soul faithfully awaiting its lover, the Savior, transcended the distinction of masculine and feminine. By choosing to represent their friendship through two female figures, Overbeck and Pforr may well therefore have intended to emphasize its spiritual and religious aspect rather than the martial and political character that friendship often had in Germany at the time of the national struggle for freedom and national unity.
In contrast to the disciplined, muscular, male body celebrated at Jahn's Turnfeste or Gymnastics Festivals, the first of which was held in Berlin in , Pforr's and Overbeck's female figures and the somewhat androgynous male figure of Overbeck's portrait of Pforr suggest a less regimented, more spiritual and religious idea of unity and fraternity. On this, see Lankheit ; also Die Nazarener , pp. Curiously, the name Sulamith was chosen as the title of the first important Jewish periodical in Germany. As the subtitle spelled out, the aim of the periodical, which began publication with the Leipzig firm of A.
Most of Moses Mendelssohn's children and grandchildren, however, sought to achieve an even closer association with German society and culture by taking the further step of converting to Christianity, albeit without losing sight of and pride in their Jewish origins. The use of the Shulamite figure by Overbeck and Pforr in association with the figure of Mary may thus reflect in some measure the less strictly Enlightenment conception of the relations of Germans and Jews developed by the romantic generation following Moses Mendelssohn.
As the Shulamite was "black," yet "comely," and in Christian thought both the bride of Solomon and the bride of Christ, the converted German Jews were Christian, yet in some measure Jewish at the same time—united with their fellow Christian Germans, yet distinguished by their own past and traditions. Overbeck himself was probably inspired by it when he chose the diptych form for a particularly fine drawing combining the Annunciation and the Visitation Kupferstichkabinett, Kunstmuseum, Basel , the first panel of which bears the title Ave Maria and the second Benedicta in Mulieribus.
Thus the chin and the left side of the face are seen frontally, whereas the mouth, the right side of the face, and the part in the hair are seen obliquely…. The nose appears to be seen both frontally and from the side, thus helping to bridge the gap between the two diverse points of view. Rosenblum , pp. In "the sharpness of the contours, the vivacity of the colours, laid on in flat tints almost without nuances within clearly divided surfaces" and "the composition of the scene itself, splintered into a multitude of animated groups, each independent of the others and drawn with extreme preciseness of detail, yet without detracting from the overall unity," Le Bris , p.
Everything is grasped in a single visual perception and experienced in a single emotion. No one part of the picture can be isolated from the whole. The massing of the paint provides the ground on which battle is joined with the classicistic principle of the unity of the many. An unmistakable principle is at work here: namely, that the artist is not obligated to provide a clear articulation of bodies.
Truth lies in the appearance of the whole as such, not in the elaboration of each individual part. Everything has to be seen together, as a single whole, not as groups of particular parts, not as a mosaic of particular parts. Millington London: Herny G. Bohn, , p.
About this book
Middle: Fig. Right: Fig. Widely acclaimed in their own time, the Nazarene artists of early nineteenth-century Germany are virtually unknown to the museum-going public in most Western countries today. Left: Fig. Theodor von Rehbenitz. Pencil on paper. Staatliche Kunstsammlung, Dresden. Private Collection. Johann Friedrich Overbeck. Self-Portrait with Wife and Son Alfons. As most judgments of their work by those who do know it are, in addition, ambiguous at best, a further step must be to reconstruct the situation to which the Nazarenes were responding and the political, ethical, and aesthetic choices they faced.
In order to look at them fairly, we have to understand what they hoped to achieve in their art and what directions in the art of their time they sought to oppose. Finally, we need to approach their work aesthetically, through open, unbiased interpretation and judgment of individual works of art. Jacob Burckhardt, for one, judged them severely. Left: Fig 1. Oil on canvas. Even when a gallery owns work by them, it is rarely exhibited.
Much of it, moreover, took the form of fresco or wall painting and is thus not easily removed from its original site. Fig 5. Christ Healing the Sick. Gustav H. Jacob and Rachel. Oil on board. Courtesy of the Kunsthalle, Bremen. Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Jacob and Rachel. Drawing in pen and brown ink, with red chalk. William Dyce, Jacob and Rachel. Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Unlike their French, British, and American counterparts, German art historians have naturally always had something to say about the Nazarenes, though in the hundred years from the mid-nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century, what they said was usually negative.
Often their judgments appear to have resulted from ideological preferences rather than close attention to the paintings. Even the National Socialist art historian Kurt Karl Eberlein, who might have been expected to promote a major national school of painters, preferred the bolder and more "virile" North German romantics especially Caspar David Friedrich to the "softer," Italianate Nazarenes. To many, the Nazarenes did not have the courage to be truly modern, truly of their time. Caspar David Friedrich criticized them on this score as early as And so I recall having seen all these figures many times before; even the backgrounds are familiar to me from old pictures and engravings.
One picture smacks of Raphael, another of Michelangelo and the predecessors of both. Would it not be better if they all carried on their brow the stamp of their creator? But perhaps he has no stamp of his own? Even Jacques-Louis David came in for a good deal of criticism. National Gallery, Two paintings, oil on board, by Adolph Menzel. The Balcony Room.
Both in the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Alte Nationalgalerie. Easter Morning. Antonio da Correggio, Noli me tangere. Prado, Madrid.