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Summer is the most favourable season of the year for both transports, because of the absence of wet removal processes and prevailing synoptic and mesoscale circulations, whilst transitional seasons are favourable for Saharan dust transport. Enhanced photochemical processes during summer produce anthropogenic aerosols, such as sulphate, that are transported toward the eastern Mediterranean basin, the Middle East and North Africa. These high values, along with the prolonged sunshine duration and the small cloud cover in summer and transitional seasons, result in large radiative effects.
The climatic role of aerosols in the Mediterranean is of great importance since this is one of the most climatically sensitive regions of the planet, with its eastern parts threatened by desertification IPCC, Perrone et al. Cases of episodes events of various aerosol types in the Mediterranean basin have been studied by many researchers.
These episodes are: i desert dust e. Dayan et al. Nevertheless, most of these studies either focus on episodes of specific aerosol types or they refer to the local scale only. In a different approach, Gkikas et al. The last factor is a very important one since it also affects the removal processes. Massive amounts of dust particles are emitted from the deserts of North Africa and southwest Asia, the largest global sources of dust Prospero et al.
Therefore, several scientists in the s and s have investigated the relationship of atmospheric circulation with aerosol burden especially desert dust and transportation paths over the broader Mediterranean basin. For example, Alpert and Ziv reported that cyclones developing over northwest Africa Atlas mountain range and moving eastwards across the Mediterranean basin are associated with heavy dust storms, mainly during spring. Also, Dayan et al. Moulin et al. Israelevich et al. Several authors e. Barkan and Alpert, ; Dayan et al. Recently, other types of aerosol episodes, e.
The article is organized as follows: in section 2, the data and the methodology used are presented, in section 3 the results of the analyses are discussed, and at the end section 4 the main conclusions of this study are drawn. Because of the wide spectral range over ocean and the greater simplicity of the ocean surface, MODIS retrieves AOD over oceans with higher accuracy, i.
Domains for the utilized atmospheric parameters outer and for the study of aerosol episodes inner, in red in the online version.
Occurrence: Episode Two
This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary. The hPa level at about metres has been selected since at this altitude dust transport is more intense or frequent Kalivitis et al. The first step of the applied methodology is the identification of aerosol episodes occurring at each of the available geographical cells of MD.
This is achieved through an objective and dynamic algorithm Gkikas et al. According to the algorithm, an aerosol episode occurs on a specific day, at a given location pixel , when AOD is larger than a critical value threshold. Note that the algorithm is dynamic since the AOD thresholds take different values for each geographical cell, being higher and lower for smaller and larger average AODs. For the number of factors to be retained, various criteria are suggested by many researchers.
In introducing the scree graph, Cattel sets a rule for deciding upon an upper bound to the true number of factors to be retained. Specifically, if the eigenvalues are plotted in descending order, then the point at which the last significant drop takes place, in other words where the line levels off, indicates the number of factors to be retained. In our application of Factor Analysis, the scree graph criterion plot is not shown indicates that eight factors should be retained, accounting for The results of Factor Analysis are not presented here, since in this work the method is applied only as a data reduction tool.
Finally, for each cluster two mean patterns, of MSLP and Z respectively, are constructed, revealing the main characteristics of the atmospheric circulation that favour the occurrence of aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean Domain. Note that each cluster consists of the set of both maps MSLP, Z , therefore differences even in one of them may lead to different clustering, as will be seen in the results. Before presenting the revealed atmospheric circulation patterns, which are associated with aerosol episodes in the Mediterranean, some general statistical information on the AEDs regime is given.
It is seen that there are two maxima, one in summer July—August and another in spring April—May. In both seasons, the number of AEDs is approximately 7—8 per month, yielding a total of AEDs out of the total of , i. The high frequency of AEDs during the dry period of the year can be largely attributed to the weak aerosol removal processes. The lack of precipitation, combined with the prevailing meteorological conditions and strong emissions, results in the accumulation of significant particulate matter in the atmosphere.
More specifically, during spring, large amounts of mineral particles are transported, mainly from the Sahara desert towards the Mediterranean and Europe. In this way, it is the central and the eastern parts of the Mediterranean basin which are mainly affected Barnaba and Gobbi, ; Papadimas et al. During summer, a similar transport of Saharan dust takes place in the western Mediterranean basin Barnaba and Gobbi, ; Papadimas et al.
During summer, significant amounts of fine aerosols are also found in the Balkans originating from extensive biomass burning occurring in central Europe and the west coasts of the Black Sea van der Werf et al.
Scrubs Season 1 Episodes 22 & 23 Review: "My Occurrence"/"My Hero"
It is noteworthy that the accumulation of aerosols in the planetary boundary layer, during summer, is favoured by the stable and stagnant meteorological conditions prevailing in the region Metaxas and Bartzokas, On the other hand, the minimum frequency of aerosol episodes in winter is due to the large precipitation amounts in the Mediterranean basin, which is the strongest removal mechanism Pruppacher and Klett, To clarify this, the mean monthly number of cells with available AOD data over MD has been computed, averaged over the period — Therefore, the absence of AEDs in November and December is not due to the AOD data unavailability, since there are and cells available, respectively, numbers comparable to those for the other months — The absence is actually due to the failure to satisfy the criterion for the occurrence of an AED as defined in section 2.
In other words, even if some aerosol episodes—as defined in this study—take place in these months, they do not exceed the necessary number of 30 over the study region. Indeed, in the literature, few and spatially limited episodes mainly dust ones have been reported in the MD during winter e. Basart et al. Note that in our analysis, all pixels with available AOD values were used, irrespectively of cloud cover conditions. It has been reported in the literature Zhang et al. Such conditions with large cloud cover are not observed in the Mediterranean on a monthly basis, even in winter.
Nevertheless, our computations have demonstrated that this overestimation does not essentially affect the identified aerosol episodes.
Thus, the frequency distribution of aerosol episodes remains essentially unchanged. These have to be taken into account in the discussion of our results. The number of pixels with strong episodes 23—41 is greater than that with extreme ones 6—18 through the year, though to a smaller extent in winter and spring. As explained in section 2, the application of the present methodology resulted in AEDs, and their associated atmospheric circulation patterns have been objectively classified in eight clusters.
In the following, for each cluster, the prevailing synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of aerosol episodes are described, by means of the derived patterns of MSLP and Z Additionally, the geographical distribution of the frequency of aerosol episodes is provided along with their intensity AOD. Finally, for each cluster, the geographical distribution of the predominance of strong or extreme aerosol episodes is presented.
Cluster 1 comprises 23 AEDs corresponding to 7. In its MSLP pattern Figure 3 a it is seen that high pressure values dominate from east Atlantic up to central Europe, while low pressure values prevail over eastern Europe, the Middle East and across the Saharan desert. Note that white areas in Figure 3 c correspond to pixels with missing AOD data, due to difficulties of MODIS to retrieve aerosol AOD either above strongly reflecting bright surfaces, such as the deserts of North Africa and Anatolia, or under cloudy conditions, which is the case of loss of information in northern Europe.
At the western Mediterranean, the southeasterly flow near the surface, along with the southwesterly flow at hPa, are responsible for the transportation of lifted dust particles from the western Sahara towards the Iberian Peninsula. The geographical distribution of the mean AOD Figure 3 d , shows that the most intense episodes of this cluster occur in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin, with AOD values up to 4.
A comparison of the two geographical distributions Figure 3 c and d reveals that frequent aerosol episodes do not necessarily imply high intensities. The stronger episodes in the eastern part of the basin may be due to the stronger wind transport indicated by the stronger pressure gradient in the eastern Mediterranean Figure 3 b. It is noted, however, that the extreme episodes appearing in some western Mediterranean pixels, are not connected with high AOD values in Figure 3 d , because strong and extreme AOD threshold levels are different from pixel to pixel given the dynamic applied algorithm, as explained in section 2.
Finally, our analysis shows that AEDs of Cluster 1 are observed mainly in spring and early summer maximum in May—1. Dark grey orange in online version indicates pixels where neither strong nor extreme aerosol episodes predominate. White areas in c , d and f correspond to pixels with missing AOD data. Cluster 2 30 days—9. An anthology series, by necessity, has to be flexible with its tone, its look, and its themes. Episodes lean heavily on dialogue to get their points across, offering some of the most accomplished television actors of the period a chance to tear into rich, meaty speeches.
Conclusions strive for a sharp, definitive gut-punch, one that serves to clarify or recontextualize everything that comes before. Irony abounds, and the selfish, the cowardly, the arrogant, and the foolish typically receive some sort of existential punishment for their failings. The first sign that something strange is going on is the most obvious deviation from the regular series: the episode has almost no dialogue in it. Here, everything is eerie, at a remove, and dream-like.
The story is presented in the simplest terms imaginable. So: not a florid monologue to be found although Serling does provide some swell opening and closing narration. Here, almost everything that would make him distinct as a person has been stripped away. His personality has nothing to do with what happens to him, if he even has a personality at all. The Twilight Zone is, at heart, a profoundly humanistic show; Serling and the writers who worked for him often punish their protagonists, and individuals routinely suffer at the hands of wanton gods, but the humanity of even the prickliest, most monstrous individual is never in question.
The soldiers who send Peyton to his doom are stock figures, faceless even when we can read their features. His connection with his wife is presented in the most abstract fashion imaginable. Yet in , even a credible academic was given pause for thought when a series of peculiar occurrences, emerging in the wake of a horrifying tragedy, led him to believe in the possibility of precognitive dreams An image of a Pantglas Junior School clock stopped at am, the moment the disaster occurred.
In , a stranger walked into a village marketplace in Haiti claiming to be a local landowner named Clairvius Narcisse. After interviewing the man and his family, local authorities confirmed that he was indeed who he said he was. The only problem was that Clairvius had been dead and buried for 18 years. What he eventually discovered was far more bizarre than anything he could have possibly imagined.
The second and final instalment of S04 Episode 7: Called to the Forest. In February , five men from the Yuba-Sutter Area in Northern California, took a short trip to watch their favourite basketball team play in a local derby.
The occurrence of acute otitis media in infants. A life-table analysis.
The heartbreaking story of how the men never returned home is not in doubt. What exactly happened to them however, remains to this day, unexplained Last week's episode about the infamous ghost ship Mary Celeste put me in mind of a story about influential artist Bas Jan Ader.
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In , Ader was lost at sea after attempting a solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. In this extra episode we learn more about Ader's trip and the extraordinary ideas that inspired him to attempt it in the first place. On December 4th , the crew of the cargo ship Dei Gratia, came across a ghost ship set adrift in the Atlantic Ocean, miles to the east of the Azores.
The fate of the vessel, Mary Celeste, and that of its crew has since become known as perhaps the greatest maritime mystery of all time. This story was used as the basis for the film, The Haunting in Connecticut 2: Ghosts of Georgia.